Faculty of Arts and SciencesBiology

Biology

Course Contents

 

 

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1. SEMESTER

 

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

T

P

C

ECTS

BYL1011

General Biology I

3

2

8

8

Biology and life; Cell chemistry; Inorganic compounds; Organic compounds: Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids; General features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Cell membrane and its function; Cell organelles; Cell division;  Mendel Genetics; Plant tissues; Plant organs; Photosynthesis; Plant embryology; Plant systematics. Practice: General laboratory rules; microscope; Plant cell and plastids; Cytoplasmic movement; Ergastic substances; DNA isolation; Mitosis-Meiosis; Plant tissues, Root, stem, leaf morphology and anatomy; photosynthesis. 

FZK1005

General Physics

2

0

5

5

Vectors (Coordinate Systems and Frames of Reference, Vectors and Scalars, Some Properties of Vectors, Compenents of a Vector and Unit Vectors; Motion in One Dimension (Average Velocity, Instantaneous Velocity, Acceleration, One-Dimensional Motion With Constant Aceleration, Freely Falling Bodies, Kinematic Equations Derived From Calculus); Motion in Two Dimensions (The Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors, Motion in Two Dimensions With Constant Aceleration, Projectile Motion, Uniform Circular Motion, Tangential and Radial Acceleration in Curvilinear Motion); The Laws of Motion (Introduction to Classical Mechanics, The Concept of Force, Newton's First Law and Inertial Frames, Inertial Mass, Newton's Second Law, Weight, Newton's Third Law, Forces of Friction, Some Applications of Newton's Law); Circular Motion and Other Applications of Newton's Laws (Newton's Second Law Applied to Uniform Circular Motion, Nonuniform Circular Motion,  The Fundamental Forces Of Nature); Work and Energy (Work Done by a Constant Force, The Scalar Product of Two Vectors, Work Done by a Varying Force: The One-Dimensional Case, Work and Kinetic Energy, Power); Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy (Conservative and Nonconservative Forces, Potential Energy, Conservation of Mechanical Energy, Gravitational Potential Energy Near the Earth's Surface); Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy ( Nonconservative Forces and the  Work-Energy Theorem, Potential Energy Stored in a Spring, Relationship Between Conservative Forces and Potential Energy, Conservation of Energy in General);Linear Momentum and Collisons ( Linear Momentum and Impulse, Conservation of Linear Momentum for a Two-Particle System, Collisions, Collisions in One Dimension ); Linear Momentum and Collisons (Two-Dimensional Collisions, The Center of Mass, Motion of a System of Particles); Electric Fields (Properties of Electric Charges, Insulators and Conductors, Coulomb's Law,  Electric Field of a Continuous Charge Distribution, Electric Fields Lines, Motion of Charged Particles in a Uniform Field);  Electric Flux, Application of Gauss' Law to Charged Insulators, Conductors in Elektrostatic Equilibrium;  Electric Potential (Potential Difference and Electric Potential,  Potential Differences in a Uniform Electric Field, Electric Potential and Potential Energy Due to Point Charges, Electric Potential Due to Continuous Charge Distributions, Obtaining  E from the Electric Potential, Potential of a Charged Conductor);  Capacitance and Dielectrics (Definition of Capacitance, Calculation of Capacitance, Combinations of Capacitors, Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitor; Capacitors with Dielectrics, Electric Dipole in an External Electric Field);  Current and Resistance (Electric Current, Resistance and Ohm's Law, The Resistivity of Different Conductors, Electrical Energy and Power);  Direct Current Circuits (Electromotive Force, Resistors in Series and Parallel, Kirchhoff's Rules);  Direct Current Circuits (RC Circuits, Charging a Capacitor, Discharging a Capacitor);  Magnetic Fields ( Definition and Properties of the Magnetic Field, Magnetic Force on a Current-carrying Conductor, Torque on a Current Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field, Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field, Applications of the Motion of Charged Particles in a Magnetic Field).

KMY1005

General Chemistry

2

2

6

6

Matter, their properties and measurement; Atom; Chemical compounds; Chemical reactions; Introduction to reactions in aqueous solutions; Gases; Thermochemistry; Structure of atom; The periodic table; Atomic properties; Chemical bonding (Lewis theory, covalent bonding, resonance, VBT, VSEPR, bond energies, Hybridization, molecular orbital theory); Liquids, Solids and intermolecular forces;   Solutions and their properties;  Chemical kinetics;  Chemical equilibrium;  Acids and bases;  Solubility and complex ion equilibria;  Electrochemistry;  Chemistry of main group elements;  The transition elements;  Complex ion and coordination compounds;  Nuclear Chemistry. Practice: Common and specialized laboratory equipment and principles of laboratory; Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, filtration techniques; Seperation and purification techniques, crystalization; Seperation and purification techniques, distilation and extraction; Seperation and purification techniques, sublimation and chromatography; Laws of conservation of mass; Stoichiometry; Redox reactions; Acid-base titration; Diffusion of gases; Quantitative analysis;  Chemical kinetics;  Preparing of solution;  Acids, bases and indicators;  Weak electrolytes;  Amphoteric;  Hydrolize;  Buffer solutions;  Solubility product constant;  Chemical synthesis and calculations of yields;  Preparing of soap.

MAT1005

General Mathematics

2

0

5

5

Building Numbers; Number Sets, Countable-Incountable Sets; Functions: Domain, Odd-Even Functions, Periodic Functions; Trigonometric Functions; Limit and Continuity; Increasing-Decreasing Functions, Inverse Function, Compound Fonctions; Maximum, Minimum Points; Derivatives and Differantion; Geometric Comment of Derivative; Derivative of Compound Functions, Chain Rule, High Decrease Derivatives; Derivative of Multiple Functions (Leibniz Rule).

ATA121

Ataturk's Principles and The History of Turkish Renovation I

2

0

2

2

General condition of the Ottoman Empire; General appearances of main European states before World War I; Relationship with Turkey and Europe, East Question,  wars in 1911-1913; World War I, the position of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, fronts; Fronts, Dardanells Wars and its effects, partition plans on Empire during the World War I; Brest-Litowsk Treaty, principles of Wilson, other treaties with Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire, Germany and Austurian-Hungary states; Peace Summit in Paris,  end of the World War I, economical condition of Ottoman Empire and laborer movements Mondros Armistice, minorities, the state of Ottoman army, cabinets, occupation of Smyrna; The beginning of the new period and Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, congresses, national assembly in Ankara; Fronts in independency wars, economical resources; Abrogation of regency, Lousanne Treaty and its importance, National Economic Congress, the foundation of parties, the announcement of Republic; The acceptance of secular law, social and cultural reforms, economical improvements, secular education and science; Principles of Ataturk and Turkish Republic, its content and concept

TRD121

Turkish Language I

2

0

2

2

Definition and characteristics of language; the place of Turkish among other worldly languages; historical development, correct usage, structure and grammar rules of Turkish language; Language, thinking and emotion relationships; Language-culture relationship: What is culture? Components and its specifications which constitute the culture; Changes in the culture;  Language and society relationship; Languages of the World; The place of the Turkish language among World languages. Development of the Turkish language and its historical periods; Turkish dialects and accents. Verbal language and written language; The present situation of Turkish language its scope; An applied  study on a text of any Turkish dialect or a comparative work on the texts of dialects; Spelling rules; Punctuation marks; Derivatives; Discussion and evaluation of examination papers. Discussion on a random issue; The ways to determine the verbal equivalents of concepts (derivation, combination etc.); Verbal and written expression. Qualities of a good expression. Observation, thinking, reading, good usage of parent language. Speech deficiencies. Stress in Turkish: stress on words, stress on groups, stress on sentences. Conversation, public speaking, meetings; Written expressions: Sentence, paragraph. Types of narration: to narrate, explanation, description, etc.; Incoherent expressions (Mistakes in Turkish language exam and composition papers and other incoherent expression examples which were determined on television, journals and in the Media; Phrasal expressions: Proverbs and idioms (Form and concept specifications); Interlinguistic exchange: Historical relationships of Turkish language, the channel of the exchange among languages, types of adaptations.

YDZx121

Foreign Language I

2

0

2

2

The verb: to be; Questions and negatives;  Personal Pronouns; Possessive Adjectives; Singular / Plural; This, these/ that, those; Prepositions of place; Possessive ‘s; Have got/ has got; Questions with who; Possessive pronouns;  can/ can’t; object pronouns; must / mustn’t.











































 

2. SEMESTER

 

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

T

P

C

ECTS

BYL1012

General Biology II

3

2

8

8

Cell structure; Introduction to methabolism; Cellular respiration and fermentation; Regulation of gene expression; protein synthesis; Viruses; Biotechnology; Phylogeny and life tree; Bacteria and Archea;  Protozoa; Fungi; Animal systematics; Invertebrata and vertebrata; Animal tissues. Practice:  Microscope; Unicellular organisms; Bacteria; Enzymatic tests used for bacterial identification; Fungus and yeast; Microscobic and macroscobic investigations of different invertebrate and vertebratas.

BYL1014

Ecology

3

0

7

7

The subject of ecology, history, description and development of ecology.; Classes of ecology (Autoecology, Demecology, Synecology); Notion of ecolological factors.; Climatical abiotic factors (Temperature, Light, Humudity and etc.); Non climatic abiotic factors (Water, Salinity, Oxygen and etc.); Non climatic abiotic factors (Sulphure, Nitrogen, pH and etc.); Population regulation; Ecological genetics; Behavioural ecology; Habitats and communities; Measurements in biological units and systems  (biomes); Biogeography; Evolutionary ecology; Conservation processes; Urban ecology (city-human interactions), pollution.

KMY1004

Organic Chemistry

3

0

6

6

Chemical Formula and Chemical Bonds;  Lewis Structures, Formal Charge, Hybridization, Molecular Geometry (VSEPR Model);  Representative Carbon Compounds: Functional Groups, Intermolecular Forces;  Acids and Bases;  Alkanes: Nomenclature and isomers;  Alkanes and cycloalkanes : Conformational Analysis;  An Introduction to Organic Reactions;  Alkenes;  Chemical reactions of alkenes;  Synthesis, resonance and chemical reactions of dienes;  Synthesis of alkynes;  Chemical reactions of alkynes;  Synthesis of alkyl halides;  Chemical reactions of alkyl halides; Aromaticity, synthesis and chemical reactions of dienes;  Reactivity of aromatic compounds and electrophilic aromatic substitution;  Spectroscopic Methods of Structure Determination;  Nucleoophilic aromatic substitution and side-chain reactions aromatic compounds;  Alcohols; classifications, physical properties and  preparations;  Reactions of alcohols and synthesis and reactions of ethers;  Aldehydes and Ketones;  Reactions of aldehydes and ketones;  Nomenclature, physical properties and preparations of organic acids;  Nomenclature, physical properties and preparations of acid halides and anhydrides;  Nomenclature, physical properties and preparations of organic esters;  Nomenclature, physical properties and preparations of amides and nitriles;  Nomenclature, physical properties and preparations of amines;  Aminoacids, proteins, carbonhydrides, lipids and vitamins

IST2084

Biostatistics

2

0

3

3

Contingency Tables and Grouped Data;  Means : Arithmetic , Median , Mode;  Counting Rules :Permutation , Combinations;  Binom Theorem;  Fundamental defination of Probability and İts Properties;  Probability,   One of The Event;  Conditional Probabilty , İndependent , Bayes Theorem;  Random Variables and İts Functions;  Expected Values and Moments;  Binom, Hypergeometric, Poisson Distributions;  Normal Distributions;  Statistics and Sampling;  Hypothesis Tests Related with Means, Portions;  Hypothesis Tests Related with  Ki-Square.

ATA122

Ataturk's Principles and The History of Turkish Renovation II

2

0

2

2

Turkish revolution and basic characteristics of Turkish revolution; The other revolutions that effected Turkish revolution; The aim of Turkish revolution: Democratic Law State; Establishment of secular Turkish secular law system; Establishment of Turkish secular education system; Reconstruction of Turkish economy, national economic and globalization; Novelties that made the Turkish society contemporary; General quality of Kemalist principles and republicanism; Nationalism; Etatism and Populism; Secularism; Revolutionism; Criticisms against Kemalist ideology and answers to them.

TRD122

Turkish Language II

2

0

2

2

Types of oral and narrative expressions; methods of scientific research; Subject, aim, theme, plan; Writing a request; Report, essay; Column, article, critic, presentation; Letter, diary; Autobiography, biography; Travel log, conversation, interview, speech; Discussion about examination papers, evaluation of replies. Discussion on a random issue; Theatre, tale, poem; Story, novel. Conference, declaration, report, research paper; Scientific research methods: book, the usage of library and computer, reading, note taking; Formatting a book: Front cover, acknowledgements, inside cover, abbreviations, etc. Types, forms and rules of bibliographies; Footnotes.

YDZx122

Foreign Language II

2

0

2

2

Simple past tense; Past continuous tense; Present continuous and be going to kiyaslanmasi; Paragraph alistirmalari; Future tenses; Conditionals; Wish; Conditionals ve ogrenilen tenselerin kullanimiyla hikaye yazilmasi; Present  Perfect tense; Modals.


























 

3. SEMESTER

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

T

P

C

ECTS

BYL2029

Animal Morphology and Systematics-I (Invertebrates)

2

2

5

5

An introduction to animal morphology and systematics and general laws; Protozoa; Cnidaria; Platyhelminthes; Rotifera; Nematodes; Annelida; Arthropoda; Mollusca; Echinodermata. Practice: To dissect/examine the stated invertebrates microscopically or macroscopically.

BYL2013

Animal Anatomy

3

2

6

6

General Information on Invertebrate and Vertebrate Phylogeny, The Integumentary System, The Skeletal System, Muscular System, Digestive System, The System of Circulation, The Urinary System, The Nervous System, The Respiratory System, The Endocrine System, The Reproductive System and Development  Practice:  Information on the Rules of Laboratory, General Informations on Invertebrate and Vertebrate Phylogeny, Studies on the Integuments of Different Animals, Studies on the Comparative Skeletal Systems, Studies on the Digestive Systems, Studies on the Comparative Circulatory Systems, Studies on the Urinar Systems, Studies on the Comparative Development

BYL2021

Cell Biology

3

2

6

6

Prokaryotic cell; Eucaryotic cell components; Anorganic and organic molecules; Structure and differentiation of cell surface, microvillus, cellular connections; endomembrane system; ER, Golgi, Lysosome interaction; Chloroplast and mitochondrium; nucleus, nucleolus, molecular structure of chromatin; Giant chromosomes; Cell cycle; cell divisions; cell signalling.  Practice:  Samples of Prokaryotic and Eucaryotic cells; Different plant and animal cells; Cell organelles; DNA isolation; Cell cytochemistry;  Karyogram; Mitosis and Meiosis; Giant Chromosomes.

BYL2025

Plant Morphology and Systematics I (Seedless)

2

2

5

5

History of the Systematic Botany, Nomenclature of the plants in Systematics;  Divisio: Bacteriophyta;  Divisio: Cyanophyta;  Chlorophyta;  Conjugatae (Conjugating algae), Charophyceae (Water Candlesticks);  Bacillariophyta (Diatomeae);  Phaeophyta (Brown algae) Rhodophyta (red algae);  Mycophyta(mashrooms);  Lichenes;  Bryophyta (Mosses and Liverworts);  Pteridophyta(Ferns);  Pteridophyta(Ferns).  Practice:   Bacteriophyta; Cyanophyta; Chrysophyta, Bacillariophyta; Conjugatae, Charophyceae; Chlorophyta; Chlorophyta; Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta; Mycophyta; Lichenes ; Bryophyta; Pteridophyta.

BYLxxxx

Elective Course 1

2

0

4

4

BYLxxxx

Elective Course 2

2

0

4

4

 

COURSE CODE

ELECTIVE COURSE 1, 2

T

P

C

ECTS

BYL2023

Soil Microbiology

2

0

4

4

Introduction. History of Soil Microbiology, the Articles of the Period; Soil Microbiological Research  Methods; Counting Methods in Soil Organisms; Detection Methods in Soil organisms Activities; Mainly  in Soil and Soil Organisms Groups; Ecology of Soil Organisms; Cultural Changes Occurring in Measures of Soil Organisms; Soil Organisms and Soil Fertility and the Relationship Between Activities; Soil Organisms in the Soil of part of the Main Events; Organic Matter; The Nitrogen Cycle and Microbiological  Nitrogen Fixation in Nature.

BYL2027

Environmental Pollution

2

0

4

4

Introduction, Scope, History and Development of Environmental sciences; Life, biodiversity, properties of ecosystems; Biojeochemical cycles and environmental health; Pollutants (types) causing environmental pollution and effects on living organisms; Problems of environmental pollution1: Increase in Population and Urbanization,  Energy resources; Problems of environmental pollution2: Industrial problems, agricultural and chemical etc.; Air pollution and effects on environment; Water pollution and effects on environment; Pollution of seas, rivers, lakes, underground waters; Pollution of soil and effects on environment; Radioactive pollution and effects on environment; Noise pollution and effects on environment; Effects of pollutants on fauna and flora, bioindicator organisms; Precautions and methods of solutions to environmental pollution problems, protection of biodiversity; Environmental rules and laws in Turkey and International agreements.

BYL2031

History of Biology

2

0

4

4

Biology in Antiquity: Early Eastern Civilisations: The scientists served for Biology in this period; Biology in the Middle Age: Biology in The Crescent: The scientists served for Biology in this period; Biology in Europe: The scientists served for Biology in this period; Biology in the New Age: The scientists served for Biology in this period;  Biology in the Recent Time: The scientists served for Biology in this period.  

BYL2033

Useful Plants

2

0

4

4

Classification of plants; Differences between useful plants and cultivated plants; Extraction methods of useful plants; Food plants; Spice plants; Stimulant plants; Industrial plants; Medicinal plants; Ornamental, garden and park plants; Egzotic plants of Turkey; Egzotic plants from the World.

 

 

4. SEMESTER

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

T

P

C

ECTS

BYL2030

Animal Morphology and Systematics-II (Vertebrates)

2

2

5

5

General features of vertebrates; Chordata; Tunicata; Cyclostomata; Chondrichthyes; Osteichthyes; Amphibia; Reptilia I-II; Aves; Mammalia. Practice: To dissect/examine the stated vertebrates microscopically or macroscopically.

BYL2014

Plant Anatomy

3

2

6

6

The theme of Plant Anatomy, its scope, history; Plant Cell, Plant Tissues (general view);  Dermal Tissue; Epidermis, the derivates of epidermis: stomas, trichomes, main tissue: Parenchyma;  Supporting Tissues: Collenchyma : Its characteristics and types; Sclerenchyma: Its Characteristics  and types;  Vascular Tissues: Phloem: Characteristics and cell types; Xylem: Characteristics and cell types.;  Secretive  Tissues: Tissues that ensures movement, their characteristics.;  Organography: Vegetative Organs: Root: Morphological Characteristics, Metamorphoses,;  The Anatomical Structure of the root: Its Primary and Secondary Structure. The root anatomy;  Stem: External Morphological Characteristics, metamorphoses.;  The Anatomical Structure of  stem: Its Primary and Secondary Structure of stem;  Leaf: External morphological characteristics, leaf metamorphoses.;  The anatomical structure of the leaf. Anatomical structure in different plant groups; Reproductive Organs: Flower.; Fruit: Morphological characteristics. Its distribution mechanisms and anatomical structure; Seed: Morphological characteristics, its anatomical structure, distribution mechanisms. Practice:  Epidermis and hairs.;  Stoma types.;  Plant Tissues: Parenchymatic Tissue.;  Plant Tissues: Supportive Tissues.;  Plant Tissues: Vascular Tissues.;  Plant Tissues: Secretive Tissue.;  Plant Organs: Root Morphology and Anatomy.;  Plant Organs: Stem Morphology and Anatomy.;  Plant Organs: The secondary growth of stem.;  Plant Organs: Wood Anatomy.;  Plant Organs: Leaf Morphology and Anatomy.;  Flower Dissection.;  Fruit  Anatomy.;  Seed Anatomy.

BYL2022

Histology

3

2

6

6

General features of animal cell and ultrastructure of organelles;  Overwiev of methods used in histology;  Tissue and tissue Classificaion;  Epithelial Tissue;  Connective Tissue;  Cartilage  and Bone Tissue;  Muscle Tissue and classification of muscle;  Blood;  Nerve Tissue;  Digestive system;  Respiratory System;  Urinary System;  Endocrin System;  Reproductive System. Practice:    General features of animal cell and organelles;  Tissue Preparation Methods;  Description of Epithelial Tissue;  Connective Tissue;  Cartilage and Bone Tissue;  Muscle Tissue;  Blood;  Nerve Tissue;  Digestive system;  Respiratory System;  Urinary System;  Endocrin System;  Reproductive System.

BYL2026

Plant Morphology and Systematics II (Seed Plants)

2

2

5

5

Systematic Categories (Divisio, Classis, Ordo, Familia, Genus, Species, Subspecies, Varietas) and their characteristics; Names of Plants (Nomenclature) and rules; Collecting and sampling for herbarium; Classification Systems for plants: Artificial Systems, Mechanical Systems, Natural Systems, Phylogenetic Systems. General Characteristics of the Divisio Spermatophyta (Seed Plnnts); General Characteristics of the Subdivisio Gymnospermae; Gymnospermae Families: Cycadaceae, Ginkgoaceae, Pinaceae, Cupressaceae, Taxaceae, Ephedraceae; General Characteristics and life cycle of the Subdivisio Angiospermae, double fertilisationGeneral Characteristics of the Classis Magnoliopsida/Dicotyledoneae;  Dicotyledoneae familes: Magnoliaceae, Lauraceae, Piperaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Ranunculaceae, Papaveraceae, Platanaceae, Hamamelidaceae; Ulmaceae, Moraceae, Urticaceae, Juglandaceae, Fagaceae, Cactaceae; Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Polygonaceae, Theaceae, Malvaceae, Nepenthaceae;  Cistaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Salicaceae, Brassicaceae/Cruciferae, Rosaceae; Fabaceae /Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Vitaceae, Apiaceae/Umbelliferae, Solanaceae, Convolvulaceae;  Lamiaceae /Labiatae, Oleaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Campanulacerae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae/Compositae; General Characteristics of the Classis Liliopsida/Monocotyledoneae; Monocotyledoneae families: Alismataceae, Potamogetonaceae, Arecaceae, Araceae, Lemnaceae, Commelinaceae, Juncaceae, Poaceae/Gramineae, Musaceae, Liliaceae,Irıdaceae, Orchidaceae. Practice: Gymnospermae families:  Cycadaceae, Ginkgoaceae, Pinaceae, Cupressaceae, Angiospermae : Magnoliopsida/ Dicotyledoneae families: Magnoliaceae, Lauraceae, Nymphaeaceae, Ranunculaceae, Papaveraceae, Platanaceae, Fagaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Polygonaceae, Malvaceae, Brassicaceae/Cruciferae, Rosaceae; Fabaceae/Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Apiaceae/Umbelliferae, Convolvulaceae;  Lamiaceae / Labiatae, Scrophulariaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae/Compositae; Liliopsida / Monocotyledoneae families: Commelinaceae, Juncaceae, Poaceae /Gramineae, Liliaceae,Irıdaceae, Orchidaceae.

BYLxxxx

Elective Course 3

2

0

4

4

BYLxxxx

Elective Course 4

2

0

4

4

 

COURSE CODE

ELECTIVE COURSE 3, 4

T

P

C

ECTS

BYL2024

Molecular Regulation in the Cell

2

0

4

4

The structure of the plazma membrane;  Transport of the small molecules from the plasma membrane;  Ion  channels and the electrical features of plasma membrane;  Endomembrane system;  Transport of the proteins in the cell;  Cell traffic (ER-Golgi-Lysosome);  Energy Transport (mitochondrium-respiration);  Energy Transport (chloroplast-photosynthesis);  Signal transduction in the cell;  Cell skeleton;  Molecular motors;  Cell cycle;  Programmed cell death (apoptosis);  The mechanics of cell division.

BYL2028

Entomology

2

0

4

4

Introduction and the Importance of Entomology, Insecta and Animal Phylogeny, The Biological and Economical Importance of Insects, The Morphology of Insects, The Anatomy and Physiology of Insects, The Insect Reproduction and Development, The Insect Ecology, Pests and Control Methods, Biological Control, The Taxonomy of Insecta.

BYL2032

Biophysics

2

0

4

4

Introduction to Biophysics;  Molecule structure of living;  Bioenergetics, Energy Transfer in Biomolecular Systems;  Human Energy Requirements, bioelectric application tools;  Basic Concepts and Laws of Thermodynamics;  Gibbs free energy;  Radiooactivity;  Molecular biophysics;  Genetic code, the DNA just construction (mapping) and of biyoenerjitig.;  Record from RNA to DNA and protein synthesis biyoenerjitig;  Regulation of gene expression;  Genetic engineering;  Biological Receptors and psychophysics

BYL2034

Lichen Biology and Ecology

2

0

4

4

Introduction; The symbiosis, systematics, diversity and ecological domain and practical applications; Photobionts within lichens; types, identification, biological structure; Mycobionts within lichens; types, identification, biological structure; Lichen symbiosis (mutualism or parasitism), Thallus morphology and anatomy, growth forms; Biochemisrty and secondary metabolites in lichens; Lichen physiology; nutrients and mineral cycling; Nitrogen cycle and contribution to ecosystems; Depending on pollution; changes and damages in community, morphology, anatomy and physiology of lichens; Factors on speed of growth and development of lichens, changes due to the pollution; Ecological distribution and lichen Biogeography, individual and population ecology; Lichens as bioindicators of air pollution, biomonitoring; Air pollutants, their sources. Heavy metal and radioactive substance accumulating- lichens and monitoring urban pollution; Methods for measuring air pollution, proper method for a region; General method-total lichen diversity of an area, using only bioindicator species, passive and active monitoring methods; Biomonitoring studies. Sensitive species to pollution, transplantation studies.

BYL2036

Micropreparation Techniques

2

0

4

4

Types of microscope; Preparation techniques, fixation and fixatives; Preparation techniques, basic, acidic and notral stains; Total and froti techniques and blood preparation; Squash preparation with Feulgen techniques; Squash preparation with Feulgen techniques; Pollen preparations; Preparation with glycerin-jelly; Permanent preparation technic: fixation, dehydration, infiltration; Permanent preparation technic: sectioning and staining; Electron microscopy techniques.

BYL2038

Soil Science

2

0

4

4

The ‘Soil’ concept; History of the Edaphology; Soil strata and phases; Pedogenesis and the factors on Pedogenesis: Physical, Chemical and Biological factors; Soil Profile: The transition of the soil and horizons in this transition;   Characteristics of these horizons; Classification of Soils: Zonal Soils; Azonal Soils and Intrazonal Soils; Characteristics of these soil classes. Soil texture; Soil Fractions; Soil Structure; Soil Classification according to their structures. Soil Porosity and its importance;  Soil Classification according to their colours. Munsel Scale for Soil Colours. Protection of Soil; Erosion and its Harms; Erosion Types; Soil Erosion and its control; Water Erosion; Wind Erosion.

BYL2042

Plant-Environment Relationships

2

0

4

4

Introduction. The branches of the Plant Ecology, the principles of the Ecology, limiting rules.; The maximum rule of Blackman, tolerence rules, convergency and divergence, the minimum rule of..; Community, competition, successsion.; Ecological factors and their influence on plants: Edaphical factors and their influence to the plants.; Soil reaction, development of soil,  the organical substances of soil, the organisms in soil.; Climatical factors and their influence to plants: Light factor and its influence to plants; The influence of light to plants: Photosynthesis, classification of plants according to their need; Heliophytes and Sciophytes, the influence of light on growth and development, photoperiodism.; Heliophytes and Sciophytes, the influence of light on growth and development, photoperiodism.; The influence of temperature on the vegetation: The life forms of RAUNKIAER.; Water factor and its influence on plants, the source of water, the water balance in the terrestrial pl..; The classification of plants according to their water need.; Wind Factor and its influence on plants.; Biological factors and their influences on plants: Parasitism, competition, allelopathy, commensalism.

 

 

5. SEMESTER

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

T

P

C

ECTS

BYL3023

Microbiology

3

2

5

5

Introduction. History of Microbiology; Terminology; Microorganisms and Their Study; Protists; Morphology , Structure, Groups and Systematics of Bacteria;  Viruses. Rickettsiales; Bacterial Metabolism; Variation , Genetics, Growth and Death  of  Bacteria. Antibiotics; Inhibition and Killing of Microorganisms; Protozoa; Algae;  General Characteristics and Distribution of Molds;  Yeasts;  Introduction to Epidemiology of  Infections and Immunology. Practice: General Rules and Regulations for the Microbiology Laboratory; Glass and optics tools for the Microbiology Laboratory. Application; Sterilization Tools and the Other Important Tools for the Microbiology Laboratory. Application; Microbial Growth Control. Application; Preparing and Investigating of Micrbiological Preparations. Application; Stains and Methods of Staining (Simple and Differential). Application; Used Media of Microorganisms' Reproduction. Application; Producing of Bacteria on the Media. Reproduction and Seperation of Pure Culture (continue); Investigation of Morphologic and Culture Properties in Pure Culture Definition. Application; Counting of Bacteria in Media. Application; Anaerobic Culture Methods. Application; Viruses, Fungi, Protozoa. Application;  Experimental Animals for Microbiology, Taking and Investigation of Microbiologic Samples

BYL3013

Plant Embryology

3

2

5

5

Contents of Plant embryology;  History of plant Embryology, Life cycle of a flowering plant;  Male reproductive organ;  Division in the tapetal cells, sporogenous tissue;  Abnormalities in the development of male reproductive organ;  Development of male gametophyte;  Abnormality of male gametophyte development;  Female reproductive organ;  Types of embryo sacs;  Characteristics of the cells in the mature embryo sac;  Pollination, Fertilization;  Embryo and endosperm development;  Apomixis. Practice: Life cycle of an flowering plant and structure of a typical flower;  Mitotic division in the root tip cells;  Male reproductive organ: Anther wall and divisions in the tapetal cells;  Meiosis in the microspore mother cells;  Mitosis in the pollen grains;  Morphology of pollen grains;  In vitro pollen germination;  Ovule and types of placentations;  Monosporic embryo sac development;  Tetrasporic embryo sac development- Megasporogenesis;  Tetrasporic embryo sac development- Megagametogenesis;  Development of an embryo, Development of an endosperm

BYL3017

Animal Embryology

3

2

6

6

History of developmental biology;  Principles of developmental biology;  Early embryonic development: Gametogenesis;  Early embryonic development: Fertilization;  Early developmental Processes: Segmentation;  Early developmental Processes: Gastrulation;  Early and later development of selected invertebrates: Porifera-Insecta;  Early and later development of selected invertebrates: Sea Urchin;  Early and later development of selected cephalochordata: Amphioxus;  Early and later development of vertebrates: Frog;  Early and later development of vertebrates: Fish;  Early and later development of vertebrates: Bird;  Early and later development of vertebrates: Mammals. Practice: Introduction of animal embryology laboratory;  Gametogenesis;  Fertilization;  Segmentation;  Gastrulation and movements of gastrulation;  Development of sea urchin;  Development of frog;  Development of fish;  Early Development of bird;  Later Development of bird;  Development of human

BYL3021

Genetics I

2

2

5

5

Importance of genetics and its related fields; Genetic terminology; The organization of hereditary molecule; Chromosomes abnormalities; Mendel and the begining of experimental genetics; Some mendelian studies; Dihybrid and trihybrid crosses; The importance of control and back cross; Genetics probability; Statistical analysis of genetic data: chi-square test; The interactions between alleles of a gene; The interactions between alleles of a different genes; Inheritance of sex-dependent characters; Pedigri analysis. Practice:  Medium preparation for Drosophila; Morphology of male and female Drosophila; Microscobic observations of mutant Drosophila; Human genetics; Definition of phenotype and genotype; Polygenic heredity-Finger print models and classifications; Bioinformatics-Databases; BLAST; Primer design;  Isolation of genomic DNA from plant leaf; PCR; Mendelian heredity.

KMY3001

Biochemistry I

2

2

5

5

Water, acid-base, electrolites, pH;  Minerals and electrolite metabolism ;  Amino acids ;  Protein structure;  Transcription;  Translation;  Enzymes;  Enzyme kinetics;  Nucleic acids;  DNA folding. Practice: Rules for Biochemistry laboratory; Basic consepts in biochemistry;  pH adjustment and buffer preparation;  Spectrophotometric measurement and standard curve  preparation;  Protein quantity measurement;  Separation of blood plasma proteins;  Isolation of plant proteins;  Detection of uric acid in blood and urine, enzymatic colorimetric test;  Protein detection in urine;  DNA isolation from blood;  Agarose gel electrophoresis;  Denaturating gel electrophoresis

BYLxxxx

Elective Course 5

2

0

4

4

                   

 

COURSE CODE

ELECTIVE COURSE 5

T

P

C

ECTS

BYL3027

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

2

0

4

4

The history of Antimicrobiyal Application; Disinfections; Antibiotics; Antimicrobial Activity; Effect of Antimicrobial Agents on Growth, Measuring Antimicrobial Activity; The Action Modes of Antimicrobial Drugs; Antifungal, Antiviral Agents, Antiprotozoan, Antihelminthic Drugs; Determination of Viable Bacterial Cell Counts in Pharmaceutical Products and Cosmetics,; Determination of Microbial Contamination in Pharmaceutical Industry; Determination of Preservatives Efficiency.

BYL3029

Oceanology

2

0

4

4

Definition and Development of Oceanology; Definition and General Features of Ocean and Sea; Chemical Oseanography: Sea Water Composition and Change; Physical Oseanography: Currents and Waves, TS Diagrams of Water Types, Temperature and Pressure; Biological Oseanography: Pelagic and Benthic Zone; Seas of Turkey; Fouling and Borin in the Sea; Upwelling, Marine Resources and Usage.

BYL3031

Molecular Biology of Plant 

2

0

4

4

Introduction to plant molecular biology and biotechnology; General systems of plants; Gene expressions in plants; Basic metabolic events in plants; Respiratory biology; The molecular basis of embryo development; The molecular basis of development of the stem; The molecular basis of root growth; The molecular basis of sex differentiation in plants; Plant micropropagation and methods; Direct and Indirect methods; Production of transgenic plants; Molecular marker techniques.

BYL3053

General Micology

2

0

4

4

Division: Mycota. General Features. Cell Structure. Reproduction. Distributions. Classification; Subdivision: Myxomycotina. Class: Myxomycetes. General Features. Reproduction. Distributions; Class: Myxomycetes. Classification; Subdivision: Eumycotina. Chytridiomycetes, Hyphochytridiomycetes, Plasmodiophoromycetes. General Features. Reproduction; Class: Chytridiomycetes, Hyphochytridiomycetes, Plasmodiophoromycetes. Distributions. Classification; Class: Oomycetes. Zygomycetes. Trichomycetes. General Features. Reproduction. Distributions; Class: Oomycetes. Zygomycetes. Trichomycetes. Classification; Class: Ascomycetes. General Features. Reproduction. Dispersion; Class: Ascomycetes. Classification; Class: Basidiomycetes. General Features. Reproduction. Dispersion; Class: Basidiomycetes. Classification; Form Class: Deuteromycetes (The Imperfect Fungi). General Features. Reproduction. Dispersion; Form Class: Deuteromycetes (The Imperfect Fungi). Classification.

 

 

6. SEMESTER

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

T

P

C

ECTS

BYL3014

Plant Physiology

3

2

6

6

Organics and inorganics elements in a plant body; Water and plant cells, diffusion,osmosis,plasmolysis, turgor, dialysis,imbibition,active transport,; Ion antogonism, ion accumulatiın, Donnan, ion exchange mechanisms; Water absorption and water transport; Transpiration, opening and closing of stomata; Photosynthesis, the light reactions; Photosynthesis, carbon fixation; C4  photosyntetic carbon assimilation and Crassulacean acid metabolism; Photorespiration and phloem translocation; Assimilation of mineral nutriens; Aerobic respiration; Anaerobic respiration; Growth and development- External factors, ınternal factors-plant hormones. Practice:   Preparation of solutions; Calculation the amount of water in plants; Analysis of inorganic elements; Analysis of organic elements: carbohydrates; Analysis of organic elements: proteins, lipids; pH and buffers; Diffusion and osmosis in model cells; Water potentials; Osmotic potential and permeability, İmbibition experiments; Transpiration experiments; Analysis of photosynthetic pigments by paper chromotography; Effect of light intensity in photosynthesis; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration experiments.

BYL3018

Animal Physiology

3

2

6

6

Biomolecules Definations, Proporties of the Systems, The Cell Physiology, The Comparative Physiology of Nervous System,  The Physiology of Muscular System, The Comparative Physiology of Circulatory System,  The Comparative Physiology of Respiratory System,  The Comparative Physiology of Urinary System,  The Comparative Physiology of Digestive System  Practice:  Information on the Rules of Laboratory Studies, Tampon Solutions, Experiments on the Enzymes and Enzymatic Functions, Experiments on Digestive System Physiology, Experiments on Circulatory System Physiology, Experiments on Blood and Hemolymph Physiology, Experiments on Respiratory System Physiology.

BYL3022

Genetics II

2

2

5

5

Pleiotropy; Penetrance and Expressivity; Polygenic inheritance and completion tests; Sex determination and sex-linked inheritance; Cytoplasmic inheritance; Linkage; Recombination; Genetic map units; Recombination maps; Cytogenetic maps; Physical (molecular) maps; Mutation; Human heredity and environment; Population genetics.  Practice: Introduction to transformation and medium preparation; pGLO Transformation; Calculating of transformation efficiency and cell culture cultivation for Gfp purification, Purification of Green fluorescence protein;  Protein Chromatography; Sex determination by Barr body-X inactivation; RNA isolation; cDNA synthesis; Mutation.

KMY3002

Biochemistry II

2

2

5

5

Carbohydrates;  Carbohydrate biosynthesis;  Carbohydrate metabolism;  Lipids;  Lipid biosynthesis;  Lipid metabolism;  Vitamins;  Hormones;  Hormone classification;  Hormone metabolism. Practice:   Evaluation of urine microscopically,  Identification and characteritation of carbohydrate;  Quantitative meazurament of sugars with iodemetric metods;  Detechtion of magnesium in blood and urine;  Detection of total lipids in blood serum;  Detection of cholesterol in blood and serum;  Characteritation and separation of saturated from unsaturated fat;  Detection of calcium in blood;  Detection of glucose in blood and urine;  Detection of bilirubin in blood;  Detection of creatinin in blood and urine;  Detection of albumin in blood and urine;  ELISA test.

BYLxxxx

Elective Course 6

2

0

4

4

BYLxxxx

Elective Course 7

2

0

4

4

                   

 

COURSE CODE

ELECTIVE COURSE 6, 7

T

P

C

ECTS

BYL3034

Pollen Biology

2

0

4

4

Pollen development; Pollen Morphology; Pollen viability; Pollen germination; Pollen sterility; Pollination; Pollen pistil interaction; Fertilisation; Pollination in crop yield; Commercial production of hybrid seeds; Gene transfer; Anter culture; Pollen allergy; Economic use of pollen.

BYL3036

Ecophysiology

2

0

4

4

Definicion of ecophysiologyi Ecological Lifr Cycles, Tolarance Law, Optimum and Limiting Factors; Energy Flow and Matter Flow, Food chain; Hidrosphare, Atmosphere, Litosphere; Soil, Mould formation and minerilization; Soil profile, Aeration of Soil; Hydrolabile and Hydrostabil plants; Water dependent factors effecting plat growth; Full sun, Semi-sun semi-shade and shade plants; Uv and IR light effect on plants; Light reflectin, absopstion and transmition of leaf surface; Photoperiodism, long day, short day and nötr plants; Temperature and heat stress; Effect of extreme temperatures (heat and cold)  on plant growth, Freezing; Effect of heat on phytomass; Environmental factors.

BYL3062

Zoogeography

2

0

4

4

General Zoogeography: Introduction, Geological Time Scale, The Position and Movements of Continents and Lands, Significant Properties About Distribution of Animals, Formation of Glaciations and Landsbridges, Barriers, The Ecological Animal Geography, The Biogeographic Regions, The Zoogeographic Regions, The Zoogeographic Regions and Animals of Lands, The Zoogeographic Regions and Animals of Oceans, Animal Migrations

BYL3064

Plant Geography 

2

0

4

4

Short History of Plant Geography and its relationships with the other sciences; Main Principles of Plant Geography; Dispersal, Migration andtheir types; Diaspores and their types; Areography: Shape, bigness, frontiers and center of the area. Origin Center: The criteria for the origin center. Formation of the areas; Some special areas: Cosmopolitans and cosmopolitan areas; Relicts and relict areas; Endemism; Endemic areas and endemic types; Vicariants and vicariant areas; Species richness of the various regions and influential factors on it. Floristic Regions of the World: Kingdom Holarctis (Holarctic Kingdom); Kingdom Paleotropis (Paleotropical Kingdom); Kingdom Neotropis (Neotropical Kingdom); Kingdom Australis (Australian Kingdom); Kingdom Capensis (South African Kingdom); Kingdom Antarctis (Antarctic Kingdom); Short Plant Geography of Turkey: Euro-Siberian Region; Mediterraneal Region; Irano-Turanian Region.

BYL3070

Epidemiology

2

0

4

4

Introduction to Epidemiology;  The Science of Epidemiology;  Epidemiological Terminology;  Epidemiology of Infections;  Distribution of Infections in Communities;  Frequency of Infected People or Animals in a Community;  Epidemiological Virulence of Infected People or Animals;  Factors that Affect Distribution and Frequency of Infections;  Variability of Distribution and Frequency of Infecting Diseases in Communities;  Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases.

 

 

7. SEMESTER

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

T

P

C

ECTS

BYL4011

Human Anatomy and Physiology

3

0

5

5

Introduction of the Human Anatomy and Structural Organisation, The Anatomical Cavities and Sections, Tissues, The Skeletal System and Articulations, The Anatomy and Physiology of Muscle System, The Anatomy and Physiology of Respiratory System, The Anatomy and Physiology of Circulatory System, The Anatomy and Physiology of Urinary System, The Anatomy and Physiology of Nervous System, The Anatomy and Physiology of Male and Female Reproductive System, The Physiology of Pro- and Post- Pregnancy, The Anatomy and Physiology of Endocrine System.

BYL4015

Molecular Biology I

3

0

6

6

Timeline in Molecular Biology; Chemical bonding; Biomolecules; Carbohydrates; Lipids; Proteins; Nucleotides; Nucleic acids; Organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; The cytoplasm and organelles; The discovery of DNA; Structure and properties of nucleic acids; Different forms of DNA; Hybridization

BYL4017

Plant Pathology

2

2

4

4

Introduction to Plant Pathology. Symptomatology;  Parasitism and Disease Development;  Environmental Effects on Infectious Plant Disease Development;  Environmental Factors that Cause Plant Diseases;  Plant Diseases Caused by  Prokaryotes;  Plant Diseases Caused by  Prokaryotes;  Plant Diseases Caused by Fungi;  Plant Diseases Caused by  Parasitic Higher Plants;  Plant Diseases Caused by Viruses;  Plant Diseases Caused by Nematodes;  Plant Diseases Caused by Flagellata Protozoa Practice:  Factors and Causes of Plant Diseases Caused to be Learned;  Sterilization and Sterile Technique Application of Laboratory Instruments;  Use of Autoclaved;  Preparation of Microorganisms for a Variety of Food Media;  Home, Land, Park and Playground Developments in Macroscopic and Microscopic Diagnosis of  Diseases of  the Factors;  Factors in the Development of  Food Macroscopic and Microscopic Diagnosis of  the Disease;  The Plant  Diseases Caused by Prokaryotes (application);  The Plant  Diseases Caused by Parasitic Fungi (application);  The Plant  Diseases Caused by Higher Plants (application);  The Plant  Diseases Caused by Viruses ( macroscopic application);  Parasitic Animals (application);  Field Investigation of Non-Communicable Diseases and Plant Diagnostic (application)

THU100

Social Service Practices

0

2

1

1

 

Occupational Safety and Health I

2

0

2

2

BYLxxxx

Elective Course 8

2

0

4

4

BYLxxxx

Elective Course 9

2

0

4

4

BYLxxxx

Elective Course 10

2

0

4

4

                   

 

COURSE CODE

ELECTIVE COURSE 8, 9, 10

T

P

C

ECTS

BYL4031

GMO and Biosafety

2

0

4

4

Description of genetically modified organisms (GMOs); Uses of GMOs; Benefits of GMOs; Potential hazards of GMOs; Necessity detecting GMOs; Methods of gene transfer to plants; Methods of gene transfer to animals and microorganisms; GMO diagnose laboratory  ; DNA-based GMO diagnosis; Protein-based GMO diagnosis; Other imortant GMO diagnosis method; International regulation about GMOs; Turkish regulation and practicies about GMOs.

BYL4033

Molecular Principles of Development

2

0

4

4

History of developmantal biology; Basics and theories of developmental biology; Molecular analysis of development; Programs and regulatory elements in DNA and RNA; Transcription; Cell surface proteins: receptors; Cell surface proteins: Ligands; Intracellular of cell interactions; Cells and their interactions; Basic cellular routines: Division, differentation and cell death; The generations of lineages; Long and  short range influences in generation of cell diversity; Cell-type spesification; Patterns in one, two and three dimensions.

BYL4035

Endocrinology  

2

0

4

4

Introduction to Endocrinology, Control of the Body Functions by Chemical Transmitters, Nature of Hormones, Hormone synthesis, Functions of Hormones, Hormones of Invertebrates, Controlling center: Hypotalamus, Pituitary Gland and its Hormones, Epiphysis Gland and its Hormone, Thyroid gland and its hormones, Parathyroid gland and its hormone, Hormones of Adrenal Cortex, Hormones of Pancreas, Male and Female Reproductive Hormones, Other Tissues That Hormone Secreting.

BYL4037

Genomics and Proteomics

2

0

4

4

Procarytic and eucaryotic genomes, comparative genomics;  Techniques and strategies used in functional genomics;  Omic applications in human genetic disease;  Pharmacogenetic, pharmacogenetic and their applications;  Toxicogenomics and it's applications;  Nutrigenomics and it's applications;  Metabolomics and it's applications;  Relationship of proteomics with genomics and systems biology;  Experimental strategies in proteomics, gel based separator, protein/peptide gel visualisation, microchips in proteomic applications;  Protein modifications in proteomics, evaluation of protein-protein interactions;  Mass spectroscopy analysis and its applications;  Recent advances in microchip production and use;  Omics technology in therapy;  Bioinformatic trends in omics technology.

BYL4051

Human Genetics

2

0

4

4

Chromosomal Basis of Heredity; The Human Genome: Structure and Function of Genes and Chromosomes; Cytogenetic and Chromosome Nomenclature; Chromosome Abnormalities; Cytogenetic Diagnostic Methods; Patterns of Single-Gene Inheritance; Autosomal Recessive Inheritance; Autosomal Dominant Inheritance; Sex-Linked Inheritance; Genetic variation in individuals: Mutation and polymorphism; Genetic disorders and polymorphism in DNA; Gene mappingand Human Genome Project; Clinical case studies detailing general principles of disease inheritance

BYL4057

Enzymology

2

0

4

4

The structure of the enzyme; Properties and roles of enzymes; Enzymes nomenclature ; Classification of Enzymes; Optimum pH of enzymes ; The quality of enzyme preparations; The enzymes that catalyze reactions of two substrate; Single-stage separation reactions; Double-stage reactions; Quantitative determination of enzymes; Enzyme kinetics; Enzyme inhibition; The control of enzyme activity; Enzyme production and purification.

BYL4061

Clinic Microbiology

2

0

4

4

Safety in the Clinic Laboratory and Laboratory Rules, Isolation of Pathogens from Clinical Specimens, Blood Culture, Urine Culture, Fecal Cultures, Wounds and Abscesses, Genital Specimens and the Laboratory Diagnosis of Gonorrhea, Culture of Anaerobic Microorganisms, Growth-Dependent Identification Methods, Growth on Selective and Differantial Media, Tests Used in Identification of Bacteria, Clinical Diagnosis, Test Methods Used for Antimicrobial Drug Susceptibily, Immunological Diagnosis, Specifity and Susceptibility, Immunization of Enfections, Susceptibility of Immunological Diagnosis Assays, Antibodies, Skin Tests and Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases, Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunological Diagnosis , Agglutination and Particules Agglutination, Immunological Electron Microscopy, Flourescent Antibodies, Clinical Applications, ELISA, HIV-ELISA, Radioimmunological Assays, Immunoblot Procedures, the HIV-Immunoblot, Nucleic Acid-Based Diagnostic Methods, PCR and Nucleic Acid Probes, HIV and Viral Load, the Other Probes in Clinic Laboratory, Diagnosis in Virology, Usage of Electron Microscope in Clinic, Laboratory Procedures for Diagnosis of Viruses

BYL4063

Herbarium Techniques

2

0

4

4

Aims, histories and functions of the herbaria; The herbaria in Turkey and in the world;  Herbarium of the Flowering / Seed Plants: Collecting, pressing, drying of the plant samples; labelling of the samples, the knowledges on the label; Protection techniques of the plant samples against harmful insects: Physical techniques, chemical techniques; Typus and typus kinds; Herbarium of  Gymnospermae, Succulent plants (Crassulaceae, Aizoaceae), spined plants (Cactaceae)  aquatic plants (Potamogetonaceae, Najadaceae, Hydrocharitaceae); Palms (Arecaceae);  Planctons (Chlorococcales, Volvocales); Blue-Green Algae (Cyanophyta); Diatomae (Chrysophyta). Herbarium of Algae groups: Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta,  Chlorophyceae, Conjugatophyceae, Characeae; Herbarium of Mushrooms (Fungi); Lichens (Lichenes / Lichenophyta) and Mosses (Bryophyta). 

 

 

8. SEMESTER

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

T

P

C

ECTS

BYL4010

Evolution

3

0

4

4

Live, evolution and science; Early beliefs about the origin of life; Modern theory of the origin of life; Experiment on the origin of life; Evolution and fossil records; Lamark's theory of evolution; Darwin's theory of evolution; The modern theory of evolution; The dating of fossils; Considering the finding related to human origin; Identifying human fossils; Considering the fossils of Ramapithecus and Australopithecus; Homohabilis, Homoerectus, Neanderthals and Cro-magnonlar; Discussing the theory that dividing the human into three groups.

BYL4014

Plant Protection

2

0

3

3

Introduction. The Concept of Disease in Plants. Symptoms and Classification of Plant Diseases; Causes of Plant Diseases. Economic Losses; Factors in Plant Disease, Plant Damage to the transmitter to be taken in Combating Measures; Protection of plants from diseases. Measures Law; Control of Plant Diseases. Control Methods that Exclude the Pathogen from the Host; Control of Plant Diseases. Cultural Methods that Eradicate or Reduce the Inoculum; Control of Plant Diseases. Biological Methods that Eradicate or Reduce the Inoculum; Control of Plant Diseases. Physical Methods that Eradicate or Reduce the Inoculum; Control of Plant Diseases. Chemical Methods that Eradicate or Reduce the Inoculum; Disease Control by Immunizing, or Improving the Resistance of, the Host; Direct Protection of Plants from Pathogens. Direct Protection by Biological Controls; Direct Protection of Plants from Pathogens. Direct Protection by  Chemical Controls; Biotechnology and Plant Pathology; Plant Pests

BYL4016

Molecular Biology II

3

0

5

5

DNA replication; DNA damage; DNA repair; Genes and chromosomes; Genome organization in prokaryotes; Genome organization in eukaryotes; Transcription in prokaryotes; Transcription in eukaryotes; Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes; Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes; RNA processing; Genetic cod; Translation; Protein folding and processing.

BYL4066

Genetic Engineering

3

0

5

5

Genetic engineering. Isolation of genetic material from bacteria, virus and eucaryotic cells; Aspects of restriction endonucleases used in genetic engineering ; Natural and artificial transformation techniques ; Defining recombinant cells after genetic transfer,  development of recombinant clones; Characteristics of clone vectors, designing hybrid clone vectors; Construction and preservation of gene libriaries; DNA sondas; Definition tests for recombinant clones; Detection of gene localizations; Southern, Northern, Western and dot-blot analyses; DNA sequencing (Sanger, Maxam-Gilbert methods and their modifications); Polimerase chain reaction; use in molecular diagnosis; Basic techniques in protein engineering; Genetic engineering in  nutriment, health,  environment and scientific research.

USxxxx

University Elective

2

0

3

3

 

Occupational Safety and Health II

2

0

2

2

BYLxxxx

Elective Course 11

2

0

4

4

BYLxxxx

Elective Course 12

2

0

4

4

                   

 

COURSE CODE

ELECTIVE COURSE 11, 12

T

P

C

ECTS

BYL4036

Animal Behavior

2

0

4

4

First Life Evoluation and  animals;  Phenotype-Genotype and animals;  The development of behaviour and instinct behaviours.;  Learning behaviours in animals.;  Learning behaviours in animals.;  Instinct behaviours in animals.;  Predator groups of animals;  Parents behaviour of animals;  Puppycare behaviours  of animals;  Migration of animals and migration ways.;  Social lifes of animals.;  The adaptiveness behaviours of birds.;  The adaptiveness behaviours of fish.

BYL4038

Environmental Biotechnology

2

0

4

4

Introduction to Environmental Biotechnology;  Microorganisms;  Fundamentals of Biological Intervention;  Pollution and Pollution Control;  Waste Lands and Bioremediation;  Plant Technologies and Photosynthesis;  Biotechnology and Pollutants;  Recombinant Gene Technologies;  Biodiesel Technologies;  Biologic Polymers;  Dye Industry;  Antibiotic Industry;  Fermentation Technologies.

BYL4042

Molecular Genetics

2

0

4

4

Chromosome Structure and DNA Organisation; Structure and Properties of Nucleic Acids; Replication and Recombination of DNA; Genetic Code and Transcription; Translation and Proteins; Control of Gene Expression; Regulation of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes; Moving Genetic Elements and Transposition; Mutations; DNA Repair Mechanisms; Gene Polymorphism; DNA Analysis Methods; Recombinant DNA Technology; Genes and Cancer.

BYL4044

Toxicology

2

0

4

4

General aspects of toxicology; Routine of toxicants to organisms; Mechanisms of toxicants; Special toxic effects; Systemic toxicology; Research techniques for toxicology; Acute and chronic toxicity; Pesticides and their effects; Toxic metals and their effects; Airborn toxicants and their effects; Waterborn toxicants and their effects; In vitro toxicology;  Principles measurement of biomonitoring; Environmental toxicology.

BYL4064

Flora of Turkey

2

0

4

4

The climate types and their characteristics dominated on Turkey; Grid System and its using for the Flora of Turkey;; The main taxa that seen in the Flora of Turkey and their characteristics: Divisio Pteridophyta : Equisetaceae, Lycopodiaceae, Selaginellaceae, Isoetaceae, Adianthaceae, Hypolepidaceae, Aspleniaceae, Polypodiaceae, Marsileaceae, Salviniaceae; Divisio Spermatohyta: Subdivisio Gymnospermae: Pinaceae, Taxaceae, Cupressaceae, Ephedraceae; Subdivisio Angiospermae: Classis Dicotyledoneae/Magnoliopsida : Lauraceae, Nymphaeaceae, Ranunculaceae, Papaveraceae, Platanaceae, Ulmaceae, Urticaceae, Fagaceae,; Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Polygonaceae, Malvaceae, Cistaceae, Salicaceae, Brassicaceae/Cruciferae, Rosaceae; Fabaceae /Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Apiaceae/Umbelliferae,  Lamiaceae/Labiatae, Scrophulariaceae,Rubiaceae,Asteraceae/Compositae; Classis Monocotyledoneae/Liliopsida:  Potamogetonaceae, Araceae, Juncaceae, Poaceae /Gramineae, , Liliaceae, Irıdaceae, Orchidaceae.

BYL4070

Biotechnology

2

0

4

4

History and Main Fields of Application in Biotechnology; Biological Systems in Biotechnology: Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes; Conventional Biotechnology; Recombinant DNA Technology; In Vitro Amplification Techniqs of Nucleic Acids; Genetic Markers; Gene Isolation and Cloning; Direct Gene Transfer Techniques; Indirect Gene Transfer Techniques; Gene Therapy; Antisense Oligonucleotide Technology; Biotechnological Vaccines; Hybridoma Technology; Bioinformatic.

BYL4072

Plant Sociology

2

0

4

4

Short history of Plant Sociology and its relations with the other sciences; vegetation: Formation, development  of it and ecological relations in vegetation; Methodology of vegetation studies; Habitat characteristics (Topographia, geological characteristics, edaphical characteristics, hydrological characteristics; ‘Association’ concept and its characteristics; Sampling methods for vegetation;  Life forms (Growth forms / Biological types); Characteristics of Vegetation: Plenty; Coverage; Density; Sociability; Scattering; Frequencity; Vitality; Phenology and Periodicity; Fidelity; ‘Succession’ concept; its characteristics and kinds.

BYL4074

Immunogenetics

2

0

4

4

Immunologic terminology;  Immune system cells and organs;  Antigens;  Immnoglobulins;  Antigen presentation to T lymphocytes;  T cell activation;  B lymphocyte maturation;  B cell activation;  Human leucocyte antigens;  Immune response;  Genetic control of immunity;  Outoimmunity;  Allergy;  Molecular progressions in immunology.

BYL4076

Industrial Applications in Microbiology

2

0

4

4

Industrial microorganisms and their products, Primary and secondary metabolites, Characteristics of large-scale  fermentations, Industrial Fermentations, Antibiotics: Isolation and characterization, Industrial Production of Penicillins and Tetracyclines, Vitamins and amino acids, Steroids, Enzymes as industrial products, Production of alcoholic beverages (Wine varieties, Wine production,Malolactic fermentation), Distilled alcoholic beverages and ethanol production, Vinegar production, Citric acid and other organic compounds, industrial fungi, and yeasts.

BYL4080

Growth and Developmental Physiology of Plants

2

0

4

4

Intoduction to the plants, plant cells and its constituents, plant cell wall structure.; Seed structure, germination conditions, thermogradient bar.; Hydroponics and growth media; Dormancy types, Germination problems, orthodox seeds.; Root structure and nutrient uptake paths.; Nutrients, acidity, buffer solutions; Soil types and determination of plant growth media; The importance of environmental conditions for seedling growth (light, heat, moisture)  ; Seedlings development and chemical stimuli (phototropism, chemonastic  responses); Nastic responses and gravitropism in plant growth and development; Plant development and hormones regulation I (cytokinin, Auxine); Plant development and hormones regulation II (Ethylene, Absisic acid, Gibberellins); Developmental and Metabolic differences in carnivorous plants;  Physiological and anatomical development in plant;  Stress factors and plant interactions.    

BYL4082

Introduction to Microbial Ecology

2

0

4

4

Introduction;Terminology; Nutrition; Multiply and Dispersal of Microorganisms in Nature; Microorganisms in Their Natural Habitats (cotinue); Terrestrial and Aquatic  Environments; Deep-Sea Microbiology; Hydrothermal Vents; Microbial Interaction; Biogeochemical Cycles; Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases; Microbial Toxins; Pollution

This page updated by Biology on 27.07.2015 16:07:20